Empieza el calor y con él los peligros de la deshidratación.

Ya les hablé sobre la importancia de la hidratación, hoy les voy a hablar sobre los peligros de la deshidratación.

La deshidratación es una disminución de la cantidad de líquido existente en nuestro organismo lo que provoca una falta de agua del interior de las células. Esto pasa cuando ingerimos menos líquido del que eliminamos con las distintas funciones orgánicas.

El líquido es un nutriente esencial para la vida. Una persona puede sobrevivir tres semanas sin alimentos pero sólo tres días sin ingerir líquidos.

Reponer adecuadamente los líquidos es fundamental para preservar el buen estado de salud. La sed es la señal de alerta de este déficit. Las células pierden agua, comienzan a contraerse y se transmite un mensaje al cerebro activándose la sensación de sed.

Cuando este aporte es insuficiente, el organismo responde disminuyendo parte de lo que se elimina por los riñones lo que hace que la orina se vuelva más concentrada. Esta es una primera acción de defensa ante una situación de déficit hídrico.

Las consecuencias de la deshidratación no son sólo la pérdida de líquidos sino también de las sales minerales que contiene. Pérdidas de sodio y potasio hacen que se produzcan desequilibrios en el organismo. Y el primer órgano en notar estas carencias es el corazón.

Al deshidratamos, la cantidad de sangre que circula por el cuerpo es menor y, como consecuencia, disminuye la sangre que bombea en cada latido, y los músculos no reciben el oxigeno suficiente.

La deshidratación puede provocar cansancio, dolor de cabeza, dificultad de concentración, malestar general, calambres musculares, sensación de nausea, aumento del ritmo cardíaco, etc. Además, puede afectar negativamente a las funciones físicas y mentales y es un factor que contribuye a empeorar algunas enfermedades.

Una mínima pérdida de líquidos hace disminuir el equilibrio entre lo que sale y lo que entra y repercute en el funcionamiento del organismo. Sólo con una pérdida del 1% de líquidos aparece la sensación de sed; si esta pérdida es del 2%, se reduce el rendimiento y la resistencia y a partir del 5% se puede producir una aceleración del ritmo cardíaco, apatía, vómitos y espasmos musculares.

Teniendo en cuenta esta importancia de la hidratación en la salud, el nivel de líquidos debe mantenerse constante, o sea la cantidad de líquido que ingerimos debe ser igual a la que eliminamos.

Nuestro organismo es incapaz de producir el líquido que necesita por lo que es necesario proporcionarle las cantidades adecuadas a través de los alimentos y de otros líquidos.

Se recomienda beber entre 2 litros y medio y 3 de liquido por día, dependiendo de cada persona, su condición física, edad y sexo, su nivel de actividad física o las situaciones ambientales como el calor, la humedad, la exposición a aires condicionados o calefacciones, etc.

Si no se reponen adecuadamente estos líquidos, se puede sufrir una deshidratación.

Fuente: Observatorio de hidratación y salud

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28 thoughts on “Empieza el calor y con él los peligros de la deshidratación.”

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